Although the standard of safety in global food supply is increasing, Salmonella infection still causes great losses to the global society in terms of productivity loss for the farmer, recalls from supermarkets/retailers and medical costs for the patients (Plym and Wierup, 2006).

Avian disease due to S. Gallinarum or S. Pullorum infection

Salmonellosis is a notifiable disease in some countries and must be reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (AHVLA, 2012). If an exporting breeding flock is involved, the trading operations for this holding will be suspended until the premises have been depopulated, effectively cleaned/disinfected and replacement flocks have shown to be free of infection. This could mean a loss of trade for several months for the affected holding, or longer if recurrent infection is not prevented. Fowl typhoid (Salmonella Gallinarum) and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) can cause substantial losses to the poultry farms, sometimes leading to their closure due to the high cost of eradication on large, complex poultry units. Veterinarians and flock owners/managers should consider typhoid Salmonella as the cause of significant mortality in poultry flocks: with Salmonella Gallinarum especially affecting adult chickens and Salmonella Pullorum affecting young birds.