Acknowledging the impact of good farming practices and legislation on the prevention of animal infection and human disease

Salmonella infection, also known as salmonellosis, consists of the invasion of a host organism (animals or humans) by Salmonella field strains, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these invading Salmonella.

In humans, it is estimated that tens of millions of human cases occur worldwide every year and the disease results in more than hundred thousand deaths. For salmonella species, over 2 500 different strains, called "serotypes" or "serovars" (WHO 2010). In foods, it is most frequently found in eggs and raw meat from pigs, turkeys and chickens (EFSA 2010).

In poultry, the most common serovars worldwide responsible for human disease are Salmonella enterica spp. Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica spp. Enteritidis (WHO 2010).

Onthe other hand, both Fowl typhoid (FT, caused by S. Gallinarum) and  Pullorum disease (PD, caused by S. Pullorum) were largely controlled in developed poultry industries in Europe and North America through ‘test-and-cull’ policies employed in the mid 20th century. However, significant outbreaks leading to considerable losses have been reported both within the UK and mainland Europe in recent years, although it is unclear if the outbreaks were related to ‘natural’ infection or factors associated with the use of the S. Gallinarum 9R vaccine strain (Barrow et al, 2012).